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Abstract: When the Security Council established the ICTY and ICTR to prosecute mass
atrocities, its motivation was clearly stated in the preambles to Resolutions 827 and 955:
it was—and I quote—“determined to put an end to such crimes and to take effective
measures to bring to justice the persons who are responsible for them.” The Council was
“convinced that in the particular circumstances [of the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda
respectively] the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international
humanitarian law would enable this aim to be achieved and would contribute to the
process of national reconciliation and the restoration and maintenance of peace.” The
Council set out its belief that establishing such international tribunals would “contribute
to ensuring that such violations are halted and effectively redressed.” From the outset,
these goals were fundamental to the mandates of the international judicial institutions that
While neither ICTY nor ICTR were intended to be permanent institutions, neither of the
courts’ mandates specified an end date for their work. As discussions progress in
meetings such as this one about how the tribunals should complete the tasks the Council
has assigned them, it is important to reflect on the underlying conceptual framework that
drove those original commitments and to ensure that new decisions preserve the positive
legacies that have been built over the past 15 years. It is worth noting that this will
require input from the constituencies that have been the subject of the tribunals’ work.
Abstract: The Security Council today extended the terms of the judges serving on the United Nations war crimes tribunals set up to deal with the 1994 Rwandan genocide and the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s, so they can complete remaining cases by the deadline set for the courts’ work.
The Council, in two separate resolutions that were adopted unanimously, urged both tribunals “to take all possible measures to complete their work expeditiously,” and expressed its determination to support their efforts in this regard.
The so-called “completion strategy” of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which is based in The Hague, requires it to finish trials of first instance by 2009, and then start downsizing in 2010.
Among the decisions taken today, the Council extended the term of office of eight permanent judges at the ICTY and 10 ad litem, or temporary, judges until 31 December 2010, or until the completion of the cases to which they are assigned.
In addition, the Council decided, on the request of the President of the ICTY, that the Secretary-General may appoint additional temporary judges to complete existing trials or conduct additional trials.
Abstract: This Synthesis Report extracts the main findings from seven EU Member State case studies surveyed under
the Capacity-Building and Training Cluster of the Initiative for Peacebuilding (IfP). Case studies were conducted
in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain in order to assess these countries’
capacities to meet EU spending targets for official development assistance (ODA) and to analyse the position of
peacebuilding within national ODA policies. Each case study analysed country-specific ODA policies by focusing
on institutional mechanisms and key actors in managing and implementing ODA; the role and capacity of civil
society organisations in influencing planning, implementation, and evaluation of ODA; and public awareness of
and support for ODA.
This report finds that international development cooperation has received growing attention during the last
decade in all surveyed case-study countries. New EU Member States in particular are striving to adhere to
their international commitments by further refining their ODA policies; enhancing the institutional structures
for managing and implementing ODA; and increasing cooperation with and consultation of civil society
Abstract: It has been 10 years since the U.S.-led war on Yugoslavia. For many leading Democrats, including some in top positions in the Obama administration, it was a "good" war, in contrast to the Bush administration's "bad" war on Iraq. And though the suffering and instability unleashed by the 1999 NATO military campaign wasn't as horrific as the U.S. invasion of Iraq four years later, the war was nevertheless unnecessary and illegal, and its political consequences are far from settled.
Unless there's a willingness to critically re-examine the war, the threat of another war in the name of liberal internationalism looms large.
Abstract: Contrairement à une idée reçue, la France et le Royaume-Uni ne sont pas les seules puissances nucléaires en Europe. En effet, depuis 1954, dans le cadre de l’OTAN, les États-Unis stationnent des forces nucléaires dans plusieurs pays du continent. Reliques de la Guerre froide, ces forces devaient originellement faire face à la supériorité des troupes conventionnelles du pacte de Varsovie. De plus de 7 000 armes nucléaires tactiques, réparties dans une dizaine d’États européens au milieu des années 1970, l’arsenal n’a cessé de diminuer, à la suite de l’éclatement de l’URSS, pour parvenir au chiffre de 350 armes en 2007. Depuis le début de la décennie, la question de l’utilité de ces armements, et donc indirectement d’un possible retrait, est de plus en plus souvent évoquée.
En toute discrétion entre 2005 et 2008, les États-Unis ont dénucléarisé deux de leurs plus grandes bases européennes, Ramstein (Allemagne) et Lakenheath (Royaume-Uni). Elles abritaient au total 180 bombes nucléaires. Indéniablement, ce désarmement apporte un nouvel éclairage sur cette posture nucléaire de l’OTAN. À ce titre, les 240 bombes restantes ont sans doute définitivement perdu leur rôle militaire au profit d’un rôle politique. Les raisons de ce retrait ne se limitent pas seulement à des problèmes de sécurité dans ces bases. Non, d’autres problématiques comme l’évolution de l’Alliance atlantique, la politique de chacun des pays hôtes, le renouvellement des flottes à capacité duale, l’utilité stratégique, sans compter la pression de l’opinion publique soutenue par des organisations pacifistes, contribuent et vont contribuer à limiter ce stationnement d’armes. Désormais seuls l’Allemagne, la Belgique, les Pays-Bas, l’Italie et la Turquie ont sur leur territoire des armes nucléaires américaines, mais pour combien de temps encore ? Demain, l’Europe va-t-elle être une zone libre d’armes nucléaires américaines ?
Abstract: A Survey and Analysis of Border Management and Border Apprehension Data from 20 States.
With a Special Survey on the Use of Counterfeit Documents.
Based on the contributions of the border services of 20 Central and Eastern European states, the 2006 Yearbook again provides its valuable overview and analysis of irregular migration trends in the region. Over the past ten years the annual Yearbook on Illegal Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe has come to be regarded as an authoritative source of information on recent border trends and in particular on the phenomena of illegal migration, human smuggling and trafficking. The annual Yearbook covers the most recent trends in illegal migration and human smuggling in the region, including long-term trends in border apprehensions, shifts in source, transit and destination countries, demographic characteristics of irregular migrants, the relationship between legal and illegal border crossings, new developments in the methods of border crossings and document abuse and on removals of irregular migrants. In addition, this year’s edition for the first time features a Special Survey on the use of counterfeit documents for illegal migration purposes. This Survey is based on the contributions received from document specialists or Special Units dealing with document security in the countries under review and provides the first comprehensive overview and analysis of patterns and trends in the use of counterfeit documents for illegal migration purposes in Central and Eastern Europe.
Abstract: This report examines perceptions and understandings regarding peacebuilding amongst actors that are directly
or indirectly related to development assistance in Slovenia. It is quite clear that all stakeholders understand
peacebuilding very differently. The Slovenian government and governmental institutions regard peacebuilding as
a broad concept – as an international development cooperation concept akin to Official Development Assistance
(ODA). This concept enables Slovenian government, governmental and non-governmental institutions to exercise
different actions to identify, establish and support structures for strengthening and consolidating peace that can
be accepted as peacebuilding efforts of Slovenia. However, the concept and funds provided by ODA are not part
of ministerial expenditures or actions, and can be perceived as “superministerial”, coordinated by the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs (MFA). A great deal of this assistance is available to different NGOs. How it works, and what the
strategic priorities of Slovenia are, is discussed in the first section of this paper.
Second, and quite important is the assistance focused on the same efforts but within ministries. Many of them have
different specialised programmes for development assistance. This may be described as ministerial cooperation;
in many cases based on bilateral agreements signed by the governments. Since not all Slovenian government
ministries are equally involved in peacebuilding, this paper focuses on those that are taking the lead. Exceptions
to that are the Ministry of Interior (MI) and Ministry of Defence (MoD). Both are commited to different actions
that might be perceived as peacekeeping and peacebuilding. To distinguish between them, and for the needs of
this paper, we drew a line between uniformed missions of the Slovenian armed forces (SAF) and police, and the
efforts exercised by civil experts and advisors from different ministries which are concentrated on state-building
actions. These activities are deployed through the well established systems of both the MI and MoD.
When speaking about peacebuilding with the Slovenian public, confusion regarding the concept is much more
apparent. Public opinion polls cannot directly measure the support for peacebuilding activities in Slovenia, because
for Slovenians “peacebuilding” is associated or confused with “peacekeeping”, and peacebuilding activities are
regarded as part of the mandate of mandate of SAF. This may partly explain the clear reluctance, or even lack
of support, for peacebuilding actions amongst the Slovenian public. The report finds that, while the Slovenian
government has committed itself to supporting peacebuilding in theory, implementation of peacebuilding
activities is limited by a lack of public support, confusion regarding “peacebuilding” and “peacekeeping” amongst
the public and even decision-makers, and lack of coordination between the government and non-governmental
Abstract: This bulletin contains information about Amnesty International’s main concerns in Europe and
Central Asia between July and December 2007. Not every country in the region is reported on; only
those where there were significant developments in the period covered by the bulletin, or where
Amnesty International (AI) took specific action.
A number of individual country reports have been issued on the concerns featured in this bulletin.
References to these are made under the relevant country entry. In addition, more detailed
information about particular incidents or concerns may be found in Urgent Actions and News
Service Items issued by AI.
This bulletin is published by AI every six months.
Abstract: U.S. policymakers have made securing and maintaining foreign contributions
to the stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq a major priority since the preparation
period for the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report
highlights and discusses important changes in financial and personnel contributions
from foreign governments to Iraq since 2003.
To date, foreign donors have pledged an estimated $16.4 billion in grants and
loans for Iraq reconstruction, with most major pledges originating at a major donors'
conference in Madrid, Spain, in October 2003. However, only a small part of the
pledges have been committed or disbursed to the World Bank and United Nations
Development Group Trust Funds for Iraq. The largest non-U.S. pledges of grants
have come from Japan, the European Commission, the United Kingdom, Canada,
South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates. The World Bank, the International
Monetary Fund, Japan, and Saudi Arabia have pledged the most loans and export
Currently, 33 countries including the United States have some level of troops
on the ground in Iraq or supporting Iraq operations from nearby locations. Those
forces are working under the rubric of one of several organizations — the
Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I), the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I); or
the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). Currently, the largest
troop contributors, in addition to the United States, are the United Kingdom, Georgia,
Australia, South Korea, and Poland. Some of these key contributors have announced
their intention to reduce or withdraw their forces from Iraq during 2008. The total
number of non-U.S. coalition troop contributions has declined since the early
stabilization efforts, as other countries have withdrawn their contingents or
substantially reduced their size.
Abstract: The fifteenth annual report of the International Criminal Tribunal for the
Former Yugoslavia covers the period from 1 August 2007 to 31 July 2008.
During the reporting period, the Tribunal continued to adopt concrete measures
aimed at increasing the efficiency of trial and appeal proceedings. For the first time
in the history of the Tribunal, eight trials were conducted simultaneously by the three
Trial Chambers, including three multi-accused trials involving 18 accused. In
addition, the Appeals Chamber issued a record number of decisions, including six
judgements in the past year and three in the last six months.
Proceedings before the Tribunal focused on the most senior-level individuals
accused of the most serious crimes. All low- and mid-level accused have been
referred back to the courts of the region pursuant to rule 11 bis.
The Tribunal also hosted an increasing number of working visits and training
programmes for courts in the region in order to ensure the preservation of its legacy
through the prosecution of war crimes cases by domestic courts. Serge Brammertz was appointed Prosecutor in January 2008, replacing Carla
Del Ponte. He concentrated his efforts on securing the arrest of the remaining
fugitives. Stojan Župljanin and Radovan Karadžić were arrested and transferred to
the seat of the Tribunal in June and July 2008, respectively. The failure to arrest the
remaining two fugitives, Ratko Mladić and Goran Hadžić, remains of grave concern
to the Tribunal.
The Office of the Prosecutor strengthened its relations with prosecutors and
courts in the region through training sessions, conferences and seminars. The Office
of the Prosecutor also worked closely with the governments of the States of the
former Yugoslavia in order to improve their relationships with the Tribunal.
The Registry continued to play a crucial role in the provision of administrative
and judicial support. During the reporting period, the Registrar, under the authority
of the President, also assisted in the identification of residual issues, including
possible residual mechanisms. The Registry continued negotiations for the relocation
of witnesses and enforcement of sentence agreements, successfully concluding three
The Outreach Programme carried out a diverse range of activities with a view
to increasing the profile of the Tribunal and bringing its judgements to the relevant
communities. Court Management Services supported 12 trials and maintained all
relevant documentation. The Victim and Witnesses Section assisted numerous
witnesses and accompanying persons in The Hague and continued its work in
relocating protected witnesses. The Office of Legal Aid continued to support the assignment of Defence
Counsel to accused at the Tribunal. It also addressed requests to facilitate the selfrepresentation
of high-profile accused.
The Human Resources Section recruited 76 staff in the Professional and higher
categories and 124 General Service staff. The section oversaw the administration of a
total of 1,146 staff members.
To date, the Tribunal has concluded proceedings against 114 accused out of the
161 indicted. The report that follows details the activities of the Tribunal during the
reporting period and illustrates the Tribunal’s unwavering commitment to meeting
the completion strategy targets without sacrificing due process.
Abstract: Le quinzième rapport annuel du Tribunal pénal international pour l’ex-
Yougoslavie couvre la période comprise entre le 1er août 2007 et le 31 juillet 2008.
Au cours de la période considérée, le Tribunal a continué d’adopter des
mesures concrètes pour accroître l’efficacité des procédures en première instance et
en appel. Pour la première fois dans l’histoire du Tribunal, les trois Chambres de
première instance ont mené huit procès de front, dont trois procès à accusés
multiples concernant 18 accusés. En outre, la Chambre d’appel a rendu un nombre
record de décisions, notamment six arrêts, dont trois au cours des six derniers mois.
Le Tribunal a concentré son action sur les principaux responsables des crimes
les plus graves. Tous les accusés de rang intermédiaire ou subalterne ont été déférés
aux autorités des pays de l’ex-Yougoslavie en application de l’article 11 bis du
Règlement de procédure et de preuve (le « Règlement »).
Le Tribunal a également organisé un plus grand nombre de visites de travail et
de programmes de formation au profit des magistrats des juridictions de l’ex-
Yougoslavie pour préserver son héritage et permettre à ces juridictions de poursuivre
les auteurs de crimes de guerre.
En janvier 2008, Serge Brammertz a été nommé Procureur du Tribunal,
remplaçant à ce poste Carla Del Ponte. Il s’est employé avant tout à obtenir
l’arrestation des accusés encore en fuite. Stojan Župljanin et Radovan Karadžić ont
été appréhendés et transférés au siège du Tribunal en juin et juillet 2008. Le fait que
les deux autres fugitifs, Ratko Mladić et Goran Hadžić, n’ont pas encore été
appréhendés demeure très préoccupant.
Le Bureau du Procureur a renforcé ses liens avec les parquets et les juridictions
nationales grâce à des programmes de formation, des séminaires et des conférences.
Il a également travaillé en étroite collaboration avec les autorités des pays de l’ex-
Yougoslavie afin d’améliorer les relations entre celles-ci et le Tribunal.
Le Greffe a continué de jouer un rôle essentiel en fournissant au Tribunal un
appui administratif et judiciaire. Au cours de la période considérée, le Greffier s’est
employé, sous l’autorité du Président, à identifier les fonctions résiduelles du
Tribunal et à réfléchir aux structures qui pourraient les remplir. Le Greffe a
également continué de mener des négociations en vue de la conclusion d’accords
concernant la réinstallation des témoins et l’exécution des peines. Trois nouveaux
accords ont été conclus.
Le Programme de sensibilisation a mené un grand nombre d’activités visant à
mieux faire connaître le Tribunal et ses décisions aux communautés de la région. La
Section d’administration et d’appui judiciaire a préparé et organisé 12 procès en
première instance et a enregistré et conservé tous les documents du Tribunal. La
Section d’aide aux victimes et aux témoins a apporté son soutien à de nombreux témoins et accompagnateurs venus à La Haye et a continué d’oeuvrer à la
réinstallation des témoins protégés.
Le Bureau de l’aide juridictionnelle et des questions liées à la détention a
continué de régler les questions concernant la commission de conseils de la défense.
En outre, il a dû répondre aux demandes d’accusés connus ayant choisi d’assurer
eux-mêmes leur défense.
Durant la période considérée, la Section des ressources humaines a recruté 76
administrateurs ou hauts fonctionnaires et 124 agents des services généraux. Elle a
supervisé l’administration d’un total de 1 146 fonctionnaires.
À ce jour, 114 accusés sur 161 ont été définitivement jugés par le Tribunal. Le
présent rapport décrit en détail les activités que le Tribunal a menées au cours de la
période considérée et montre que le Tribunal est fermement résolu à respecter les
échéances fixées par la stratégie d’achèvement de ses travaux sans pour autant
sacrifier les garanties de procédure.
Abstract: Radovan Karadžić, the former Bosnian Serb leader, was arrested by the Serb authorities in July 2008 and then transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, where he remains in custody awaiting trial. Questions answered include: 1. What charges does Karadžić face? 2. Why will Karadžić’s trial take place in The Hague instead of Bosnia-Herzegovina? 3. When will the trial begin and how long will it last? 4. Karadžić has said he wants to defend himself rather than be assisted by lawyers. Can he indeed do so? 5. Who are the judges and prosecutors? 6. Is the ICTY hearing any cases other than that of Radovan Karadžić? 7. What will happen to the trial if former General Ratko Mladić is also extradited to the Tribunal? Could Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić be tried together? 8. The trial of Slobodan Milošević lasted for more than four years and ended with Milosevic’s death, before the court reached a verdict. How can the court avoid a similar scenario? 9. Some say that the ICTY is due to close down in 2010. What happens to the trial if it is not completed by then? 10. Who pays for the operation of the court? How much does it cost a year?
Abstract: The aim of the article is to highlight the ways in which transnational organised crime in the Western
Balkans developed and is developing, on the one hand, and some problems of combating transnational
organized crime on the other. For that purpose the author analyses the development and challenges of
criminal investigation trends in the Western Balkans and Slovenia, and reviewed literature and other
sources to identify main problems and try to find some answers. If new technologies are being used
(misused) for criminal purposes, then it is logical to use them in the field of criminal justice, that is,
for the purpose of the scientific suppression of crime. In that sense, professional education of judges,
prosecutors, attorneys and police should include knowledge of criminalistics, which is not the case in
all transitional countries. From all above stated facts it is important to analyse transitional crime
problems in the Western Balkans that we can plan for the future. In conclusion, the author examines
certain measures that expose failures and suggests some answers to the questions in connection with
the fight on transnational organised crime in the Western Balkans. The diffuse nature and complexity
of the problem should not reduce the countries’ determination to counter it, for that alone would result
Abstract: Les organisations de défense des droits de l’homme et les associations qui luttent contre l’impunité dans les Balkans rendent public aujourd’hui un manifeste commun pour s’élever contre le projet de fermeture prématurée du Tribunal Pénal pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) avant que les principaux criminels de guerre aient été jugés.
Abstract: Since its inception, the ICTJ has supported the work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). In 2002 then ICTJ President Alex Boraine testified at the unprecedented sentencing hearing in 2002 for Biljana Plavsic, former President of Republika Srpska. Boraine noted the importance of Plavsic's guilty plea and her acknowledgment of responsibility, but questioned her decision not to take the extra step of testifying about the roles of other senior Serb officials in committing war crimes. On February 12, 2002 the Trial Chamber of the ICTY began to hear the case against former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic. The case marked the first time a head of state faced charges of genocide and crimes against humanity in an international court. It also offered a dramatic public history lesson on the catastrophe that engulfed Yugoslavia in the 1990s. To enable transparency and the widest possible audience for the trial, the ICTJ and the Human Rights Project at Bard College created an internet-based archive of the audio and video of the trial. The archive allows cross-referencing and easy movement across segments of the trial video. It is also linked to a physical archive of broadcast-quality digital videotapes of the trial, fully open to use by researchers, students, broadcasters, and members of the public. While the death of Milosevic in March 2006 meant that the ICTY was unable to issue a verdict in his trial, the case uncovered a substantial amount of documentary evidence and witness testimony that now forms part of the public record.
Abstract: La présente évaluation de la politique des vingt-sept pays membres de l’Union
européenne en faveur des droits de l’Homme répond au développement récent des
« investissements éthiques », constitués pour une grand part d’actions d’entreprises privées, mais également d’obligations d’Etat. C’est cette partie « obligataire » dont il s’agit ici d’éclairer les fondements dans une perspective « éthique », dans l’optique de favoriser les investissements dans les Etats menant une politique plus active de promotion des droits de l’homme. Cette étude s’inscrit dans la continuité des études élaborées en 2001, 2003 et 2005.
Abstract: La plupart des réfugiés bosniaques Ã¢gés, au nombre de 74, ont eu l'opportunité d'apprendre la langue slovène et ils reÃ§oivent toute l'aide nécessaire pour survivre. Néanmoins, ces réfugiés bosniaques ne s'intégreront jamais vraiment, contrairement Ã leurs jeunes compatriotes. C'est un sujet de préoccupation pour l'UNHCR et les autorités, dans ce pays et Ã travers l'Europe.
Abstract: Freedom House welcomes the vote by the United Nations General Assembly to elect Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina for the two open seats for Eastern European States in yesterday's election to the UN Human Rights Council. Belarus, the third candidate for the East Europe vacancies, was defeated in a tight race following a vigorous campaign by numerous human rights organizations and countries opposed to the candidacy of a country with one of the world's most abysmal human rights records.
Abstract: This book is a collection of essays, in English and Serbian, that were presented at the international conference "Women in the Army", organized in October 2006 in co-operation with the OSCE Mission to Serbia and the Serbian Ministry of Defence. The essays are dedicated to women in the Serbian Army and highlight experiences from Russia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Great Britain and France.
Abstract: The process of transition from communism to democracy in southeastern Europe has reached the point at which the countries of the region are embarking on a much longer journey: the transformation process. While the transition so far has included dismantling of communist political structures and getting rid of one-party authoritarian rule, transformation is going to be much more complex. It involves state-building and good governance based on the rule of law, human rights, and civil liberties; a free-market economy; pluralistic democracy; and above all, socio-cultural changes and acceptance of new values and responsibilities across the board. The lesson the international community and #democratic governments are still to learn is that the holistic approach to reconstruction and development is the only way to guarantee stability and peace in the region. The holistic approach simply means realizing that civil liberties, safety and security, an independent judiciary, and good governance go hand in hand with market economies and private and entrepreneurial initiative, eventually creating conditions for a good society. Efforts and measures aimed at improving these policy areas should not be given priority over one another. Wherever the international community or local authorities have tried a sector-driven approach in transitional countries, it failed or slowed down the process of transformation. All these areas have to be addressed and confronted simultaneously from day one, in particular when dealing with communities struggling with post-war reconstruction as well.
Abstract: The SEESAC Small Arms Curriculum Project was funded by the EC under the auspices of the EU 2PP from March
through until November 2006, with the aim of investigating the need for curricula on small arms developing
materials in cooperation with stakeholders and developing a plan with Ministries of Education to implement the
curricula. However more in-depth study and discussion during the education consultancy raised doubts about
the current concept of xe2x80x98small arms risk education' for children. This further research strongly suggests that such
risk education programmes should not be introduced into schools, as they lack educational validity and are not
Abstract: The Dayton Peace Accords Project assists post-conflict parties in developing practical solutions to issues of peace implementation, constitutional development, institution building, economic development, and cultural and ethnic heritage through the provision of appropriate and time technical, legal, and advocacy assistance.
Abstract: This material contains 34 recently declassified National Intelligence Estimates or NIEs representing the Intelligence Community's most authoritative analysis of Yugoslavia. Over a period of nearly four decades, these reports gave U.S. policymakers keen insights into the factors shaping events in and around Yugoslavia xe2x80x94 Belgrade's break with the Soviet Union, through the Tito years, and right up to the eve of the nation's collapse xe2x80x94 an event foretold by the documents.