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Résumé: The analysis of the role and the capacity of regional organizations, such as the African Union, in securing peace and stability has to start from a clear understanding of the role that the international relations and peace studies theory has developed for regional intergovernmental organization in this field. Acknowledging the potential role of regional organizations will allow us to value the present capabilities of the African Union and study the ways in which they can be improved.
Résumé: This report, the third of its kind, reviews the progress that has been made in the fi eld of violence prevention since the October 2002 launch of the World report on violence
and health and the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. More importantly, it sets out what the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners can do over the
next 5 years to expand violence prevention programming and to demonstrate, in terms of lives saved lives and suffering averted, the impact of violence prevention.
Résumé: Estimates identify 2.4 million refugees, with Syria and Jordan, two countries with sizeable Palestinian populations as well, hosting the vast majority. Lebanon, Egypt, Iran, and Turkey have also received significant flows of Iraqi refugees. In host countries, school systems, medical services, water supplies, sanitation infrastructure, and housing stock are now stretched to the limit. Despite the increased international
awareness of the Iraqi displacement crisis, adequate resources to address the true scope of refugees' needs have yet to materialize.
Résumé: It isn't easy to talk about a conflict as complex as Colombia's or about the suffering it has brought to the civilian population for over 40 years, not to mention the enormous economic resources it consumesxe2x80x94and this in a country that is to a large extent prosperous, with abundant natural resources.
The author attempts to describe an average day at a health clinic run by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontixc3xa8res (MSF) in the Catatumbo region of Norte de Santander as part of the experiences he lived in one of the most conflict-filled and isolated regions in Colombia. I
Résumé: Although the crime threat in Chiang Mai remains lower than that of many American cities, non-confrontational crimes of opportunity such as pick-pocketing, purse-snatching, and burglary have become more common in recent years.
Résumé: Iraq is experiencing the worst human displacement of its history, with almost 2.2 million persons
displaced within its borders and an additional two million who have fled the country to the
surrounding region. This mass displacement is fast becoming a regional and ultimately
Résumé: The mass displacement seen immediately after the bombing of the Al-Askari shrine in Samarra
February 2006 has not ceased. As violence erupts in certain cities, more and more internally
displaced persons (IDPs) are seeking refuge in camps, even if only as a temporarily stopover
until a better option is identified. Unfortunately, these camps tend to be set up in remote locations
for security reasons and lack basic services, such as electricity, latrines, water, and access to
health centers, schools, and #even food.
According to IOM needs assessments, the recently-displaced rank shelter as their number one
priority need. Moving to camps is seen as a last resort due to cultural sensitivities to these living
arrangements and the lack of services. IOM does not endorse the establishment of camps for
these populations and instead encourages assistance to local communities that host the
displaced. However, in a context where living in a camp is the only option, providing these
extremely vulnerable populations with emergency assistance is paramount.
Résumé: With the end of absolute royal rule following the People's Movement of April 2006 and the resulting peace agreement that ended hostilities between the Maoists and the Government, Nepalis hoped for a Naya Nepal characterized by the rule of law, respect for human rights, and democracy. However, Nepal still suffers from an enormous deficit in human rights protections. Torture still continues, the culture of impunity reigns, and victims continue to suffer from the mental and physical wounds of egregious human rights violations and abuses.
Résumé: The mix of Iraqi insurgent groups is as complex as ever. Al Qa'ida in Mesopotamia is only one part of a mix of different Sunni Islamist Extremists and more nationalist groups. There is a wide mix of Shi'ite extremists and militias. There are still no reliable estimates of the strength of given groups, or of how many attacks of what kind a given group conducted, who their leadership is many cases, or exactly what they stand for.
Résumé: The genocide in Rwanda, like all genocides, was a complex phenomenon that resulted from a combination of long-term structural factors as well as more immediate decisions taken by powerful actors. Of course none of these circumstancesxe2x80x94whether poverty, land scarcity, a population of two groups of very different size, a history of colonial rule, or a misreading of historyxe2x80x94in and of itself caused the genocide, no more than did the introduction of multiparty politics or the start of war. But all these circumstances formed the context in which Rwandans made decisions in this period of crisis, and so must be taken into account in trying to analyze the genocide.
Résumé: Human trafficking is the modern-day form of slavery. It requires the use of force, fraud, or coercion by a trafficker to compel a person into, or hold someone in, an employment
situation in which he or she will be criminally exploited. Human trafficking is a pernicious crime that violates the fundamental
principles of our society. For traffickers,
victims are commodities to be traded and exploited in any market. Trafficking may occur when victims are transported across borders or within a nation, or may not involve transportation at all. Victims, often women, are usually lured by promises of well-paying jobs. Once deprived of the opportunity to return home or communicate with their families, victims are generally held through force or threats in situations of sexual exploitation or forced labor. Human trafficking offenses thus transgress the victims' human liberty in violation
of the Thirteenth Amendment's guarantee
of freedom. As such, trafficking offends the core civil rights on which our Constitution and our country are based.
Résumé: Fafo conducted two opinion polls in the Palestinian territories in 2005, one between 31
August and 9 September (results released 13/9/05), and the other between 21 November
and 10 December (results released 21/12/05). The first survey covered the Gaza Strip while
the second collected information from both territories. Both polls surveyed opinions on
the political situation, peace and conflict, and governance. The first poll focused on the
Israeli pullout of Gaza while the second poll measured the pullout's effect on people's lives
in addition to people's views on the upcoming Palestinian par#liament elections.
This report presents the results from the November-December poll, but will include comparisons
with the first Fafo poll as well as with other polls, where relevant. Where nothing
else is stated, all figures referred to are based on Fafo's latest poll. This poll was financed by
a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Résumé: The Regional Human Development Report on Promoting ICT for Human Development: Realizing the Millennium Development Goals, is a first-time attempt to systematically assess the role and impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on human development in Asia. Initiated jointly by UNDP's Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP) and Asia-Pacific Regional Human Development Reports Initiative (APRI), the Report makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the potential and challenges of using ICTs to achieve human development goals. The Report covers nine countries in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,Thailand and Vietnam.
Résumé: Post-conflict justice systems are characterized by severe dysfunction, low levels of human and material resources, destroyed infrastructure and lack of public trust. The past failure of the legal system to protect individual rights, prosecute violators and balance executive power is often either a direct cause of, or a substantial contributing factor to, the conflict. A history of corruption, discrimination and abuse of power within the institutions of justice can destroy public confidence and perpetuate lawlessness and chaos. Developing a justice system that protects human rights and promotes the rule of law is a critical aspect of securing peace and preventing future conflict. As such, it can form a vital part of
any peacekeeping operation and its mandate. The effective transformation of a dysfunctional justice system into one that meets fundamental international standards is an extremely long and difficult process. effective reform requires a detailed and ongoing assessment of the functioning of the system and a clear picture of its problems. Consistent monitoring of the legal system for compliance with the domestic law and international standards of fairness provides decision makers with the accurate and specific information they need to strategically target resources for reform based on real rather than perceived challenges.
Résumé: Conflicts often arise from the failure of a State's legal system to protect rights and punish perpetrators of human rights violations. Discrimination, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement officials, and the military in many cases, fuel and exacerbate conflicts and make it even harder to achieve reconciliation after the conflict. Injustice, literally, drives people to take up arms. Understanding how the justice sector actually worked in the State before and during the conflict, and how it should function if the rule of law is to take root, should be a central feature of any peacekeeping operation. This is extremely complex terrain, so each peacekeeping operation should have experts who can analyse the roles of the various key actors in the justice sector: judges, prosecutors, lawyers, court administrators, the police, prison officials, and ministries like justice, interior and defence. With a great deal of modesty, the international rule-of-law officers can then honestly assess what they can offer their key national counterparts in what must be a nationally led exercise, all the while also honestly assessing the very weaknesses and deficiencies that helped create the injustices and the conflict in the first place. This will enable the peacekeeping operation to monitor the impact of reform efforts while promoting initiatives to strengthen local institutions' capacity to administer justice fairly, protect human rights and establish the rule of law. Most peacekeeping mandates now include these twin purposes of monitoring the rule of law and human rights observance and institution-building. Observing and evaluating the justice system as an entire sector are, therefore, crucial to the success of all peacekeeping operations.
Résumé: More than seven million refugees have been confined to refugee camps, segregated settlements or otherwise deprived of their rights for ten years or more, according to World Refugee Survey 2004 - Warehousing Issue, which the U.S. Committee for Refugees releases on May 24. USCR's 43rd annual survey of refugee conditions and statistics reports on the 11.9 million refugees worldwide and condemns the practice of refugee warehousing as legally indefensible and morally unacceptable.
Résumé: A month after the international community solemnly marked the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide in April 2004 with promises of "never again", it faces a man-made humanitarian catastrophe in western Sudan (Darfur) that can easily become nearly as deadly. It is too late to prevent substantial ethnic cleansing, but if the UN Security Council acts decisively -- including by preparing to authorise the use of force as a last resort -- there is just enough time to save hundreds of thousands of lives directly threatened by Sudanese troops and militias and by looming famine and set in train a serious negotiating process to resolve the underlying political problems and reverse the ethnic cleansing.
Résumé: As the rest of Indonesia celebrates its first direct presidential elections, its westernmost province is in turmoil. Political killings, torture, and armed raids on homes and villages are ruining the Acehnese people's lives and forcing hundreds of them to flee. Amnesty International urges the new president of Indonesia to state publicly his opposition to human rights violations and to set up a high-level team of independent experts to conduct an inquiry into the human rights abuses committed in Aceh. It is also essential that humanitarian and human rights groups -- including UN experts -- are allowed to visit. Foreign governments must dramatically increase pressure on Indonesia to open up Aceh to scrutiny by human rights experts, to allow aid agencies to carry out their work and to hold to account anyone who violates human rights.
Résumé: In addition to persecution and serious
human rights violations which affect all
refugees, women are often subjected to
sexual violence including rape, torture
and mutilation, and sexual slavery.
Such violence is prevalent during armed
conflict but also occurs frequently in
camps and other places where women
seek refuge. Persistent insecurity and
deprivation caused by their forced
displacement mean that women have
been unable, or afraid, to obtain medical,
psychological and social support.
Résumé: This draft strategy report offers a blueprint for U.S. leadership in rethinking the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. The proposed strategy synthesizes some innovative approaches of the George W. Bush administration, the benefits of the traditional treaty-based regime, and many new elements. It highlights both the necessity for strict enforcement of nonproliferation agreements and for global cooperation to forge those agreements.
Résumé: A decade-long wave of enthusiasm about ending human
poverty and suffering is coming to an end. After the close of the Cold War, optimists thought that nothing now stood in the way of a new progressive internationalism that would see old enemies working together. They would
help each other and those countries previously caught in
the cross-fire of super power politics.
Résumé: The Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement and the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, in partnership with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, co-sponsored a regional seminar on internal displacement covering the countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), including Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zimbabwe. Government representatives, SADC, international organizations, and NGOs participated. The following text is a background report that was prepared for the seminar.
Résumé: Philip Fiske de Gouveia examines how the media can facilitate much needed change across the African continent, and outlines a number of UK-specific policy recommendations. The report addresses a variety of key questions including: What role can and should the media play as part of political and economic advances in Africa? Can and should Africa shrug off its perceived information dependence on the West? Should the creation of an indigenous pan-African broadcaster be a development priority?