This paper identifies the factors linked to cross-country differentials in growth performance in the aftermath of social conflict for 30 sub-Saharan African countries using panel data techniques. Our results show that changes in the terms of trade are the most important correlate of economic performance in post-conflict environments. This variable is typically associated with an increase in the marginal probability of positive economic performance by about 30 percent. Institutional quality emerges as the second most important factor. Foreign aid is shown to have very limited ability to explain differentials in growth performance, and other policy variables such as trade openness are not found to have a statistically significant effect. The results suggest that exogenous factors ("luck") are an important factor in post-conflict recovery. They also highlight the importance in post-conflict settings of policies to mitigate the macroeconomic impact of terms of trade volatility (including countercyclical macroeconomic policies and innovative financing instruments) and of policies to promote export diversification....
Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent
nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against
children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the “Neighborhood Method”.
In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from
the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size.
Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional
injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the
date of interview, occurring in their homes’ and those of their three closest neighbors.
The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in CAR,
and represent a step forward in quantifying the protection needs of Central Africans. Government, donors,
and international organizations should make use of this data to better inform advocacy, prevention, and
response programs, to assist in fundraising, and to develop surveillance activities to monitor child
January 8, 2010 Military Review // United States Army Combined Arms Center
THE OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS of European Union Force
Chad/Central African Republic in Mont Valérien, France, near Paris,
is located 270 kilometers from the political and strategic decision-making
headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, and 4,300 kilometers from the two
military theaters of operation in Chad and the Central African Republic.
Chad is the fifth largest country in Africa. It is surrounded by Sudan to the
east, Libya to the north, Niger and Nigeria to the west, and Cameroon and
part of the area of operations in the Central African Republic to the south.
The geographical distances involved are important. The force headquarters
is in Abéché, more than 2,000 kilometers from the port of Douala in
Cameroon, the main sea point of disembarkation. The area of operations
measures some 850 kilometers long and 250 kilometers wide....
December 14, 2009 German Institute of Global and Area Studies // Leibniz-Institut für Globale und Regionale Studien
This paper analyzes the declining importance of political parties in the Central African
Republic (CAR). It argues that the problematic attitude of elites who are fluctuating between
violent and peaceful behavior in order to further their own careers is jeopardizing
both peace and democracy. The author hypothesizes that both political parties and rebel
movements are failing to adequately represent (ethnoregional) interests, but that parties
are suffering more in the course of the enduring war and the peace process. Patterns of
elite behavior are presented as the main explanation for the resulting crisis of representation,
with international actors’ preference for inclusionary power‐sharing deals seen as the
main aggravating factor....
November 20, 2009 German Institute of Global and Area Studies // Leibniz-Institut für Globale und Regionale Studien
Little attention has been paid to the factual effect of the state’s security forces on the security
of African citizens. Reports about security forces’ contribution to widespread insecurity
are frequent: the protectors become violators and their appearance causes fear, not security.
In many African crisis countries the realization of better security forces appears to
be an elusive goal, either because violent conflicts are not definitively settled and therefore
do not allow for decent reform or because a lack of capacity as a result of material constraints
is not easy to remedy. The self‐help mechanisms used to compensate for the lack of
state‐sponsored security need more attention. However, it has to be acknowledged that the
ideal of a neutral and effective force loyal to the state is shared by a great majority of the
population. This contribution compares the experiences of Liberia and the Central African
Republic, two extreme cases of strong and weak international involvement, respectively, in
post‐conflict security‐sector reform....
June 2, 2009 Integrated Regional Information Networks // United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
The Central African Republic (CAR) has been in the throes of a humanitarian crisis for more than a decade. Army mutinies, coups and attempted coups, rebellions, gangs that kidnap for ransom and, more recently, elements of Uganda’s notorious Lord’s Resistance Army have made life for civilians, especially in the north, extremely challenging, unpredictable, and very dangerous.
As IRIN’s new documentary film, Under the Gun, demonstrates, many Central Africans have little say over where they live even. Countless villages in the north lie abandoned, crumbling with disuse, their residents ensconced nearby in makeshift bush camps, too scared to return.
Details of perpetrators vary from village to village and depend on the year of what are euphemistically referred to as “events”. But for the most part, the story is the same: one day in 2003, or 2006, or 2007, or 2009, men with guns – government soldiers, Chadian soldiers, mutinous soldiers, rebels – fighting other men with guns, turned up at dawn, shooting, sometimes executing, often setting fire to every thatched roof....
Nine actual or potential conflict situations around the world deteriorated and one improved in November 2010, according to the latest issue of the International Crisis Group’s monthly bulletin CrisisWatch released today.
Tensions surged on the Korean peninsula as two South Korean civilians and two marines were killed when North Korea fired dozens of artillery shells at Yeonpyeong Island, where South Korea was conducting military drills. Haiti ’s late month presidential elections ended in confusion, as several opposition candidates called for the vote to be annulled amid reports of fraud, and thousands of people took to the streets in protest. International observers from the OAS called the vote valid despite “serious irregularities”, but tensions remain high. Ivory Coast saw deadly pre-election clashes on the streets of the capital Abidjan between rival supporters of the two presidential candidates, incumbent Laurent Gbagbo and former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara. The tightly contested 28 November run-off and delays in announcing the preliminary results has led to heightened tensions between the two camps and fears of further violence.
In Guinea, preliminary results declaring opposition leader Alpha Condé winner of the 7 November second round presidential election sparked three days of violence resulting in at least four deaths and dozens injured. CrisisWatch also noted deteriorated situations in Burundi, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Egypt and Western Sahara.
In Niger, the situation improved as results from the 31 October referendum showed 90 per cent of voters in favour of the new constitution, paving the way for January 2011 elections and a return to civilian rule.
Once again this month CrisisWatch describes violence against civilians in North and South Kivu provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo....
Turkey holds the presidency of the Council in June.
An open debate on protection of civilians is planned late in the month. There is also a possibility of another open debate on peacekeeping with a particular focus on troop contributing countries late in the month (this has not been confirmed at press time).
Debates are likely on Kosovo, with the participation of representatives of Serbia and Kosovo, and on Iraq, with the likely participation of the country’s representative.
Formal meetings to adopt resolutions renewing mandates of operations in the Golan Heights (UNDOF) and in Georgia (resolution 1866) are expected.
The Council is likely to receive several briefings in June:
A briefing on Sudan by John Holmes, the Under Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, originally scheduled in May but postponed.
The monthly Middle East briefing may be conducted in June by Tony Blair, the Quartet Special Envoy (at press time this has not been confirmed).
Early in the month, the Council will be briefed by the presidents and prosecutors of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR) on the completion strategies for each tribunal.
The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is also expected to brief the Council.
The Chair of the Liberia Sanctions Committee.
The Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee.
The head of the United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA).
The Council is likely to receive briefings on:
Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL);
Burundi (BINUB); and
The Council will also discuss:
Central African Republic (BONUCA); and
the Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED)....
May 22, 2009 International Center for Transitional Justice
The International Criminal Court (ICC) is preparing to prosecute Jean-Pierre Bemba of the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for alleged rapes, torture and murders that his militia
committed in the Central African Republic (CAR). The case against him demonstrates that
the ICC is targeting senior leaders responsible for the most heinous crimes and is taking into
account the regional dimensions of African conflicts. But the Bemba case also underscores
that international prosecutions are just one element of a holistic approach for countries to
take as they come to terms with past human rights abuses....
Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, alleged national of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), about 45 years old, was arrested today (24 May 2008) by the Belgian authorities following a warrant of arrest issued under seal by the International Criminal Court. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, President and Commander in Chief of the Mouvement de libération du Congo (MLC), is alleged to be criminally responsible for four counts of war crimes and two counts of crimes against humanity committed on the territory of the Central African Republic from 25 October 2002 to 15 March 2003. Pre-Trial Chamber III found that there are reasonable grounds to believe that in the context of a protracted armed conflict in the Central African Republic from about 25 October 2002 to 15 March 2003, MLC forces led by Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo carried out a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population during which rape, torture, outrages upon personal dignity and pillaging were committed in, but not limited to, the localities of PK 12, Bossongoa and Mongoumba....
May 26, 2008 Coalition for the International Criminal Court
On 24 May 2008, Belgian authorities arrested in Belgium Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, alleged President and Commander in Chief of the "Mouvement de Libération du Congo" (MLC) on the basis of a warrant of arrest issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for crimes against humanity and war crimes allegedly committed in the Central African Republic (CAR). The charges contained in the warrant of arrest refer to acts allegedly committed in the CAR between 25 October 2002 and 15 March 2003. Pre Trial Chamber III stated that there are reasonable grounds to believe that Jean-Pierre Bemba is criminally responsible jointly with another or through another person for two counts of crimes against humanity: rape and torture, as well as four counts of war crimes: rape; torture; outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; and pillaging a town or place....
May 12, 2008 Integrated Regional Information Networks
The Central African Republic is striving to turn the page on decades of armed violence linked to mutinies, coups and attempted coups. Hundreds of thousands of civilians remain displaced, many of them unable, or too afraid, to farm their land. This is an overview of the various armed groups, government security forces and international military missions in the country.
May 29, 2007 Coalition for the International Criminal Court
On Tuesday, 22 May 2007, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) Mr. Luis Moreno-Ocampo announced the opening of a fourth investigation into grave crimes allegedly committed in the Central African Republic, with the peak of violence occurring in 2002 and 2003. The prosecutor's announcement points to a focus on sexual violence, referring to hundreds of victims telling of rapes and other abuses committed "with particular cruelty." He also explained that "this is the first time that [he] is opening an investigation in which allegations of sexual crimes far outnumber alleged killings."
The government of the Central African Republic referred the situation on its territory to the ICC on 22 December 2004, indicating that national proceedings had begun in relation to serious crimes but that a judicial decision was made to stop those proceedings and instead refer the matter to the ICC. The prosecutor has reviewed information from various sources and now concluded that there is a reasonable basis to believe that crimes falling within the jurisdiction of the Court were committed in the CAR....
14 May 2010 - Reports of a dramatic rise in the frequency and brutality of attacks by the rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) from Uganda against civilians in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Sudan and the Central African Republic.
Central African Republic - Between March 20 and May 6, 2010, thirty six people were killed and 10,000 displaced by 10 LRA raids on villages in Haut-Mbormou.
DR Congo - Since December 2008, the LRA have killed more than 1,800 people, abducted 2,500 and displaced 280,000 in Bas-Uélé and Haut-Uélé, the epicentress of the LRA atrocities.
Sudan - An estimated 2,500 people have been killed and 87,800 forcibly displaced mostly in Central and Western Equatoria....
June 18, 2009 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs // ReliefWeb
This map provides a humanitarian snapshot of the Central African Republic (CAR) as of June 2009. The first half of 2009 has been a marked deterioration in the humanitarian situation in CAR. Clashes between rebel groups, CAR's armed forces (FACA) and self-defence groups undermine the implementation of the December Inclusive Political Dialogue creating new waves of displacement. Humanitarian access is hampered by very poor roads and government limitations on humanitarian activities.
May 1, 2009 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs // ReliefWeb
This map represents displacement in the Central African Republic as of May 1st, 2009. Thousands displaced in Kabo and Moyenne Sido following fighting between the army and a rebel group. According to Medecins Sans Frontieres, about 8,000 displaced people are seeking refuge in the bush.
With the arrest of Jean-Pierre Bemba, the International Criminal Court (ICC) takes another important step in the fight against impunity.
On Saturday 24 May 2008 the former rebel leader and former presidential candidate in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo was arrested in Brussels, Belgium, following an arrest warrant issued by the ICC. According to the ICC statement he faces “four counts of war crimes: rape, torture, outrages upon personal dignity and pillaging and two counts of crimes against humanity: rape and torture, committed on the territory of the Central African Republic (CAR) from 25 October 2002 to 15 March 2003”. The alleged crimes arise from the involvement of Bemba and his Movement de Libération du Congo (MLC) in the attempted coup d’état against former president Ange-Félix Patassé. Bemba, then one of the main warlords/rebel leaders in the DRC had been called in by Pattassé to help quell the insurrection....
June 7, 2007 International Federation for Human Rights
The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) and its two member organisations in Central African Republic (CAR), the Ligue centrafricaine des droits de l'Homme (LCDH) and the Organisation pour la compassion et le développement des familles en détresse (OCODEFAD), welcome the decision to open an investigation into serious crimes committed in CAR, in particular into sexual crimes perpetrated in 2002 and 2003.
May 29, 2007 Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice
The Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice welcomes the decision by the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to formally open an investigation into crimes committed in the Central African Republic (CAR) during 2002 and 2003, said Executive Director Brigid Inder.
"In May 2006 we held consultations in CAR with women's organizations, victims/survivors groups and women lawyers who were adamant the ICC should open an investigation and prosecute those responsible for rape and other forms of sexual violence" she said.
"Today's announcement on CAR is significant because it is the first time the Prosecutor has announced the intention to explicitly investigate gender based crimes as a priority at the outset of a formal investigation" said Brigid Inder.
The widespread commission of rape and sexual violence in CAR is a feature common teach of the conflict situations where the Court is conducting or has conducted its investigations. "What is unusual about the CAR situation is the quantity of material available documenting these crimes. Local women's organizations and victims/survivor groups have documented more than 1000 incidents of rape. This has made it hard to ignore these crimes and provides the Court with a strong resource of information and potential evidence to consider during their investigations" Brigid Inder said....
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August 2, 2011 Institute for Security Studies // L'Institut d'Etudes de Sécurité
Africa’s Great Lakes region has known conflict for a considerable period of time, and this has been met with several initiatives aimed at managing the situation in a sustainable way. One such initiative was the Multi-country Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (MDRP), led by the World Bank, from 2002 to 2009. The initiative, which looked at selected countries in the Great Lakes, focussed on the demobilisation and reintegration of former fighters, with the main objective being to improve the livelihoods of affected communities. Despite the challenges that the MDRP encountered, the programme realised a number of successes and brought to the fore numerous lessons learned. It is these lessons that this monograph has sought to document, with the hope of contributing to the better planning of similar programmes in future. The monograph uses case studies of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo to illustrate how the MDRP was implemented, while Liberia is included as a control case....
June 7, 2011 Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
The Examples from the Ground are concrete illustrations of ways in which a gender perspective has been integrated in different security sector institutions around the world. They range from measures to counter human trafficking in Kosovo, to women’s organisations’ involvement with security institutions in Nepal, to female parliamentarians’ contribution to post-conflict reconstruction in Rwanda. These examples can help policymakers, trainers and educators better understand and demonstrate the linkages between gender and SSR.
The examples are organised around the following nine themes, for which a short introduction is provided:
• Police Reform and Gender
• Defence Reform and Gender
• Justice Reform and Gender
• Penal Reform and Gender
• Border Management and Gender
• Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• National Security Policy-Making and Gender
• Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender
Individual examples can also be downloaded individually, in English or in French, at: http://gssrtraining.ch/index.php?option=com_content&view;=article&id;=4&Itemid;=131〈=en...
May 5, 2011 Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre // The Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
In order to advise policy-makers at a critical juncture after the
re-election in January 2011 of President François Bozizé of
the Central African Republic (CAR), the Watchlist on
Children and Armed Conflict (Watchlist) and the Internal
Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) joined forces
to conduct a four-week field mission to CAR to
research and report on the situation of children
affected by armed conflict. We found evidence that
at least four of the six grave violations monitored
under UN Security Council Resolution 1612 (2005)
are still being committed against children in CAR:
the abduction of children, recruitment or use of
child soldiers, attacks against schools, and the
denial of humanitarian access to children.
CAR is situated at the heart of one of the most
volatile regions in the world, where it shares borders
with Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
(DRC), and Sudan. CAR also has some of the worst
humanitarian indicators in the world and has been ranked
the world’s fourth most under-funded and ignored humanitarian
crisis. In addition, the people of CAR suffer a weak
government, with minimal support from the international community,
which cannot protect them from violence or meet their urgent needs for nutrition,
water and sanitation, health care, and education.
Children in CAR face severe human rights abuses and violations. Numerous armed groups
are active throughout the country, terrorizing communities and abducting children. Three
groups in particular are guilty of egregious crimes against children and are still committing
four of the six grave violations against CAR’s children.
The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), which for years has terrorized communities and
abducted children in northern Uganda, more recently has been forced into remote areas of
nearby countries, including CAR, where it has attacked villages and abducted children. The
Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP) is the only armed group still fighting the
government, and is reportedly recruiting or using child soldiers and attacking schools in
the northeast. Self-defense militias, created by communities to protect themselves from
attack, recruit children as young as 12 years old and use them to fight....
The report highlights the ongoing protection crisis in the country, caused by
sporadic fighting between Government forces and armed groups, prevalent banditry
and the extreme poverty of the population. The crisis is compounded by the lack of
capacity of the defence and security forces and the judiciary, as well as by
insufficient socio-economic opportunities.
In spite of the Government’s commitment to end the use and recruitment of
children, their mobilization into the ranks of rebel groups and self-defence militias
throughout the country continued during the reporting period. Children have been
mobilized by the Armée populaire pour la restauration de la République et la
démocratie, the Union des forces démocratiques pour le rassemblement, the Front
démocratique du peuple centrafricain and the Mouvement des libérateurs
centrafricains pour la justice, which are signatories to the 2008 Libreville
Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Children were also present in the ranks of the
Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix. Limited progress was made in the
development and implementation of action plans by armed groups signatories to the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
The report notes other grave violations, such as the killing of children, sexual
violence, attacks on health centres and the denial of humanitarian access. In the
south-east of the country, the Lord’s Resistance Army continues to abduct and
forcibly recruit children and use them as combatants, spies, sex slaves and porters.
The report identifies the national armed forces, armed groups, self-defence
militias and road bandits as responsible for grave violations against children. It also
describes the programmatic response to violations committed.
Finally, the report stresses the considerable challenges in monitoring and
reporting, as well as addressing, grave violations against children, and outlines a
series of recommendations with a view to securing strengthened action for the
protection of children in the Central African Republic....
February 16, 2011 Group for Research and Information on Peace and Security (Groupe de recherche et d’information sur la paix et la sécurité)
La Mission des Nations unies en République centrafricaine et au Tchad (MINURCAT) a clôturé ses activités en décembre 2010, à la veille des élections générales dans les deux pays. La fragilité de ses acquis résulte des faiblesses de son mandat, essentiellement humanitaire alors que les problèmes sont politiques. Ainsi la mission a dû gérer les conséquences d’une situation sur laquelle elle ne pouvait pas intervenir. En outre, la lenteur de son déploiement a contribué à la discréditer. Enfin, le retrait des Casques bleus des zones occupées par les rébellions a privé les populations de ces régions de la possibilité de participer aux élections dans des conditions de sécurité suffisantes. Plus globalement, la MINURCAT illustre la valeur ajoutée d’un partenariat entre l’ONU et l’UE et rend compte des défis de la gestion des crises actuelles : d’une part, concilier deux principes contradictoires, à savoir la souveraineté des États et la responsabilité de protéger ; et d’autre part, déployer une opération de maintien de la paix lorsque les conditions de paix ne sont pas remplies....