January 3, 2007 Central Asia-Caucasus Institute // Silk Road Studies Program
The emergence of a Wider Black Sea Region as an emerging hub of European
security is a major development in the first decade of the twenty-first
century. This process is currently unfolding, and has substantial implications
for European security in a wider definition of the term - touching upon
traditional, military aspects of security, but equally affect increasingly
important areas of energy security and so-called xe2x80x98soft security' challenges.
The emergence of this region is taking place as a result of multiple
developments - the eastward expansion of the European Union being
primary among these, in combination with important developments in the
political and economic spheres in the countries surrounding the Black Sea.
This study proposes to analyze this process and its implications for Europe
and for European policy toward the region....
U.S. interests in the Black Sea areaxe2x80x94energy transit, security, counter-terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and the trafficking of drugs, weapons, and peoplexe2x80x94have taken on particular significance since 9/11. The Black Sea basin is a strategic region bordering the Greater Middle East and a key transit route for Caspian oil. Confronted with developments in the region, the U.S. needs a comprehensive regional policy to protect American interests and security.
The security issues affecting this region in 2005 are in fact a
distinct combination of classic tensions between conventional military
systems, in some cases vestiges of the cold war, and of new dangers
introduced by strategic terrorism or linked to the political tensions
generated by the current processes of democratization. As an indirect
consequence clashes of interest have arisen in the region among the
various actors (Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, the US, NATO, the EU .....),
none of whom has really developed a tailored strategy for the area or
made a genuine commitment. And yet there has been a great deal of
regional interaction, especially with regard to forgotten conflicts or weak
areas - scars left by recent history and invested with special significance
by the "flower revolutions". How can a constructive response be found to the Trandsniestria
4 question? How do the tense situations in Abkhazia
and Karabakh influence interplay between actors and jeopardize
prospects of regional security? How useful is the Montreux Convention
In post-modern times violence - particularly violence between
large groups - is to do mostly with identity, status and recognition. In
times when such matters are seen as settled and self-evident, they do not
produce violence. In times when moorings are adrift - they do.
There are things that can be done to counter, minimize or de-fuse
violence. Some measure of success in this seems to be possible under two
basic scenarios. One: when deciding to do something about violence, it
may be useful to keep oneself as far away as possible from conceptual
thinking (in order not to paint oneself into a corner by not seeing the full
possibilities because of pre-existing conceptual limitations); and just try
out all sorts of things that look as if they may work. And / or, two: have
the right - the useful - conceptual basis, on which to construct a system
April 12, 2005 Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies // Nanyang Technological University
In an effort to make European troops more employable in out-of-area operations, the United States has urged NATO to set goals of having each member nation able to deploy 40 percent of its forces abroad with at least 8 percent of each nation's military actually deployed at any given time. The motivation behind this idea would be to help sustain the ongoing shift from reliance on territorial defenses during the Cold War to expeditionary forces in the post-September 11 era. Even so, this objective may be exceedingly difficult for new NATO members to achieve, given the competing budgetary and political pressures to which they are subjected....
The countries of Southeastern Europe--Romania, Bulgaria, and Moldova-- have had problems transitioning from centrally-planned economies to a market-based economies. Both Bulgaria and Romania were significantly affected by the economic embargo placed on Yugoslavia in the 1990s, suffering billions of dollars in GDP losses due to disrupted trade, transport, and investment. While Moldova was less affected economically by the wars in the former Yugoslavia, its own civil war began soon after its independence, paralyzing the country's already stagnant economy. Armed conflict has subsided, but Russian settlers and Moldovans on the left bank of the Dnistr River still maintain the secessionist Transdnistrian Republic, created when the fighting reached a stalemate....
The United States of America finds that neither the classic instruments of criminal law and procedure, nor the framework of the laws of war (including respect for the Geneva Conventions) has been apt to address the terrorist threat. As a result it has introduced new legal concepts, such as "enemy combatant" and "rendition", which were previously unheard of in international law and stand contrary to the basic legal principles that prevail on our continent. Thus, across the world, the United States has progressively woven a clandestine "spider's web" of disappearances, secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers, often encompassing countries notorious for their use of torture. Hundreds of persons have become entrapped in this web, in some cases merely suspected of sympathising with a presumed terrorist organisation....
December 7, 2004 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed shortly after the end of the Second World War to counter the threat of Soviet invasion of Western Europe. The treaty setting up the alliance was signed in 1949 by 10 Western European nations as well as Canada and the United States. NATO's mandate is to provide a common defence for the European and Atlantic areas, and to address common issues faced by the member countries.
November 30, 2004 Minorities at Risk Project // Center for International Development and Conflict Management // University of Maryland
Most Turks live in two main areas where they represent the majority of the inhabitants, one in the northeast of the country (Silistra - Varna), the other in the southeastern corner (Haskovo - Kurdzali). There is no risk of rebellion for the Turkish minority in Bulgaria. In the past they did not engage is such activities, preferring to address their issues via democratic competition. Since this avenue proved to be successful, the presence of factors such as geographic concentration and high group organization and cohesion does not suggest that rebellion would occur. The Bulgarian regime has been stable in the entire post-communist period and there has been no repression against the group.
The Bulgarian regime improved consistently throughout the past decade, showing signs of democratic consolidation and improvement for the situation of the Turks. Many measures aimed at responding to the demands of the group have been implemented. A factor in this transformation for the better has been the support Turkey, Bulgaria's neighbor to the South and a NATO member, has given to post-communist governments in regards to the situation of ethnic Turks living in Bulgaria. There was no spillover from the Balkan conflicts into Bulgaria.
The potential for protests is also very low. The government does not engage into acts of repression against the Turks, whose cultural and political rights are respected. The support that Turkey offers to the ethnic Turks living in Bulgaria encourages politically negotiated solutions. The regime in Sofia has taken serious steps towards becoming a full democracy....
November 30, 2004 Minorities at Risk Project // Center for International Development and Conflict Management // University of Maryland
The Roma population is spread out evenly across the territory of Bulgaria, without any region of higher density. They tend to live on the outskirts of villages or in slums located in the cities, occupying a marginal position both physically and culturally. There is no risk of rebellion for the Roma in Bulgaria. They do not have a history of protest and currently are poorly organized, with membership in cultural, political and other associations very low. In addition, they lack a strong sense of community, and are divided from within. There is competition among the various groups belonging to this minority and they have a hard time to speak with one voice. The likelihood that Roma would engage in protests against authorities is not high either. Some of the factors that may encourage protests are nevertheless present. The Roma suffer severe restrictions in the economic and social areas; even though politically they are represented at most levels, they are present in low numbers and in inferior positions in the state apparatus, the army and the police. There have been some instances of violent action taken by civilians belonging to the Bulgarian ethnic group against the minority of Roma. However, there is little support from kindred groups elsewhere, democracy is making steady progress in Bulgaria and, more importantly, the group lacks organization and cohesion so the possibility of engaging in protests is reduced....
August 31, 2004 European Centre for Minority Issues
The Ethnopolitical Map of Europe is intended to cover those regions in Europe, including the Balkans, the Baltic Sea area and the Caucasus, which are currently facing or have recently experienced ethnopolitical tension or conflict. The clickable map is guiding the users to official documents which reflect international involvement in the reduction of ethnopolitical tension and resolution of interethnic conflicts in different countries and regions of Europe. Further, the map provides information on population statistics, current national legislation and relevant literature on the ethnopolitical situation in those countries. ...
The South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) was launched on 08 May 2002 in Belgrade. SEESAC is a component of the Regional Implementation Plan on Combating the Proliferations of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) formulated and adopted by the Stability Pact in November 2001(Revised in 2006), with the aims of stopping the flow and availability of SALW in the region, consolidating achievements so far and supporting the socio-economic conditions for peace and development in South Eastern and Eastern Europe. The uncontrolled proliferation and illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW) is a serious problem in South Eastern and Eastern Europe. SALW proliferation has fuelled crime and insecurity, exacerbating conflict in the region and undermining post conflict peace-building. Problems related to SALW are likely to pose a serious constraint to economic and social development in South Eastern and Eastern Europe. Established in co-operation with the UNDP and housed in their offices in Belgrade, SEESAC worked to support the Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan for an initial period of three years; the impact of the project has led to a further four-year extension until December 2008. Political and strategic guidance and indigenous support for SEESAC is provided by a Regional Steering Group (RSG), which is composed of representatives of the governments of the states concerned, the Stability Pact, UNDP and observers from institutions such as the European Union (EU), North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and civil society. The RSG meets twice yearly and has approved the 2006 SEESAC Strategy and a revision of the SEESAC mandate. SEESAC capability is now available to all stakeholders within the CIS and Caucasus region. SEESAC is now also available to provide technical advice and project development assistance for the disposal of heavy weapons (within available resources). SEESAC operates under the guidance of The Regional Steering Group for Small Arms and Light Weapons and the UN Resident Co-ordinator in Belgrade. SEESAC liaises directly with governments and civil society, providing technical input, information exchange, co-ordination and overview of current and future efforts and fund-raising assistance for specific SALW projects. SEESAC's small team is in constant communication with all the governments involved and with the relevant international organisations, non-governmental organisations and bi-lateral donors. SEESAC's regional activities include sensitising governments and civil society on small arms issues, formulating national strategies for SALW control and incorporating small arms issues into UNDP development planning....
ELIAMEP is an independent, non-profit and policy-oriented research and training institute. ELIAMEP neither expresses, nor represents, any specific political party view. It is only devoted to the right of free and well-documented discourse.
ELIAMEP can trace its origins to informal meetings in the mid-1980s among academics, diplomats, military officials and journalists. That group's goal was to introduce an independent and scholarly approach to policy options regarding European integration, transatlantic relations as well as the Mediterranean, South-eastern Europe, the Black Sea and other regions of particular interest to Greece. In April 1988 these meetings were institutionalized and became the Hellenic Foundation for Defence and Foreign Policy (Greek acronym, ELIAMEP).
Since its official establishment, ELIAMEP has experienced significant growth and has attracted the attention of scholars, government officials and corporate entities in Greece and abroad. As developments in the wider region moved rapidly, the focus of the institute was enlarged to include more policy-relevant research projects assisting post-communist democracies in the creation of a civil society, providing training and networking services and acting as a contact point to public and private sector bodies on politico-economic and security matters, as well as on European affairs. This was reflected in the 1993 amendment of ELIAMEP's statutes to include a change of name (without abandoning its original acronym), which would illustrate the Foundation's wider scope of concerns and activities: Hellenic Found#ation for European and Foreign Policy. The message is clear: in the context of the EU and shared sovereignties, a distinction needs to be drawn between European policy and traditional foreign policy.
Over the years, ELIAMEP expanded its activities with a view to having a greater impact on the public through the dissemination of information and of policy proposals, the organisation of training and conflict management seminars and international conferences, the publication of books, journals and monographs. ELIAMEP is frequently visited by journalists from various parts of the world requesting the Foundation's help for information, analysis and interviews. It is now generally recognised as one of the leading think-tanks in the region. ...
The mission of the International Mission on the Balkans is to develop a vision for the integration of the countries of Southeastern Europe into the European Union and other international structures highlighting the progress made to date, supported by recommendations for action to the governments of the region and to the international community. The Commission completed its work in May 2006.
July 22, 2011 UN Women // United Nations Entity for Gende Equality and the Empowerment of Women
The past century has seen a transformation in women’s legal rights, with countries in every region expanding the scope of women’s legal entitlements. Nevertheless for many of the world’s women the laws that exist on paper do not translate to equality and justice.
Progress of the World’s Women: In Pursuit of Justice looks at how the legal system can play a positive role in women accessing their rights, citing cases that have changed women’s lives both at a local and at times global level. It also looks at the important role women have played and continue to play as agents for change within the legal system, as legislators, as lawyers, as community activists but also asks why, despite progress on legal reform, the justice system is still not delivering justice for all women.
The report focuses on four key areas: legal and constitutional frameworks, the justice chain, plural legal systems and conflict and post-conflict. Drawing on tangible examples of steps that have been taken to help women access justice, the report sets out ten key recommendations for policy and decision makers to act on in order to ensure every woman is able to obtain justice....
April 27, 2011 International Peace Research Institute
The political transitions in Egypt and Tunisia have rekindled
the interest in how states and societies have moved from authoritarian
regimes to democracy after overthrowing old regimes.
This report responds to that interest by providing a factual
overview of transitions to democracy of nine European states
between 1974 and 1991.
The states covered fall into two geographical regions:
Southern Europe, and Central and Eastern Europe. The context
of transition in each of these regions was different. The transitions
in Southern Europe took place as mainly discrete events
with little influence of one country over another. In contrast,
there was a strong regional dynamic in Central and Eastern
Europe, where all transitions were influenced by Gorbachev’s
policies of perestroika and glasnost and the loosening of the
Soviet Union’s grip on its satellite states....
August 11, 2009 Foundation for Defense of Democracies
Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, nor is it likely to disappear anytime soon. It is not the exclusive domain of any single religion or ideology, nor do all terrorists come from the same socioeconomic class or share the same mental pathologies.1 In part, the diversity within contemporary terrorism is what makes it so great a challenge. This report describes, in great detail, the state of terrorism in Western countries over the course of 2008.
Before turning to terrorism events in the West during 2008 and key developments within Western countries’ legal systems, we are going to pinpoint a few broad trends—a few currents that run through the various incidents and cases that follow. As this report will show, concerns about the contemporary connection between criminal activities and terrorism are clear in Bulgaria, a country rife with organized crime. An April 2008 parliamentary report charged that profits from the country’s drug trade were channeled to Middle Eastern terrorist groups....
June 3, 2009 Initiative for Peacebuilding // Partners for Democratic Change International
This Synthesis Report extracts the main findings from seven EU Member State case studies surveyed under
the Capacity-Building and Training Cluster of the Initiative for Peacebuilding (IfP). Case studies were conducted
in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain in order to assess these countries’
capacities to meet EU spending targets for official development assistance (ODA) and to analyse the position of
peacebuilding within national ODA policies. Each case study analysed country-specific ODA policies by focusing
on institutional mechanisms and key actors in managing and implementing ODA; the role and capacity of civil
society organisations in influencing planning, implementation, and evaluation of ODA; and public awareness of
and support for ODA.
This report finds that international development cooperation has received growing attention during the last
decade in all surveyed case-study countries. New EU Member States in particular are striving to adhere to
their international commitments by further refining their ODA policies; enhancing the institutional structures
for managing and implementing ODA; and increasing cooperation with and consultation of civil society
December 10, 2008 International Centre for Migration Policy Development
A Survey and Analysis of Border Management and Border Apprehension Data from 20 States.
With a Special Survey on the Use of Counterfeit Documents.
Based on the contributions of the border services of 20 Central and Eastern European states, the 2006 Yearbook again provides its valuable overview and analysis of irregular migration trends in the region. Over the past ten years the annual Yearbook on Illegal Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe has come to be regarded as an authoritative source of information on recent border trends and in particular on the phenomena of illegal migration, human smuggling and trafficking. The annual Yearbook covers the most recent trends in illegal migration and human smuggling in the region, including long-term trends in border apprehensions, shifts in source, transit and destination countries, demographic characteristics of irregular migrants, the relationship between legal and illegal border crossings, new developments in the methods of border crossings and document abuse and on removals of irregular migrants. In addition, this year’s edition for the first time features a Special Survey on the use of counterfeit documents for illegal migration purposes. This Survey is based on the contributions received from document specialists or Special Units dealing with document security in the countries under review and provides the first comprehensive overview and analysis of patterns and trends in the use of counterfeit documents for illegal migration purposes in Central and Eastern Europe....