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Abstract: In the last couple of decades, debate within the international community and the Pacific has centred on the challenges posed to socio-economic and political development by insecurity and conflict. This focus has also resulted in a shifting understanding of security, which now includes the safety and well-being of people and communities as well as the security of the state.
The Pacific, like other regions, is dealing with a difficult and diverse set of law enforcement, governance and security challenges. The region has witnessed violent conflict, civil unrest and political crises. This has led to a growing recognition of the critical role of law enforcement agencies and security institutions. However, in recent years, there have been concerns that these institutions lack capacity to meet the challenge of providing security to the general public; that governments do not have the necessary civilian security expertise to manage them; that legislatures are not empowered to oversee them; and that security forces are not held accountable under the law for their actions. Effective governance of security institutions is vital for the Pacific region. In the context of conflict and violence, it supports the efforts of state institutions to stabilize the security situation, begin the road to recovery and reduce the potential of relapse. In non-conflict contexts, it ensures security institutions fulfil their mandate to combat insecurity. This creates an enabling environment for poverty reduction and sustainable development.
Abstract: This paper quantifies the impact of terrorism and conflicts on income per capita growth in Asia for 1970–2004. Our panel estimations show that transnational terrorist attacks had a significant growth-limiting effect. Transnational terrorism reduces growth by crowding in government expenditures. An internal conflict has the greatest growth concern, about twice that of transnational terrorism. For developing Asian countries, intrastate and interstate wars have a much greater impact than terrorism does on the crowding-in of government spending.
Policy recommendations indicate the need for rich Asian countries to assist their poorer neighbors in coping with the negative growth consequences of political violence. Failure to assist may result in region-wide repercussions. Conflict and terrorism in one country can create production bottlenecks with region-wide economic consequences. International and nongovernmental organizations as well as developed Western countries and regions could assist at-risk Asian countries with attack prevention and post-attack recovery.
This study has six purposes. First, and foremost, we present panel estimates for a sample of 42 Asian countries to quantify the impact of terrorism and conflicts on income per capita growth for 1970–2004. Panel estimation methods control for country-specific and timespecific unobserved heterogeneity. Second, we distinguish the influence of terrorism on economic growth from that of internal and external conflicts. Third, these influences are investigated for cohorts of developed and developing countries to ascertain whether development can better allow a country to absorb the impact of political violence. Fourth, econometric estimations relate violence-induced growth reductions to two pathways— reduced investment and increased government expenditures. Fifth, a host of diagnostic and sensitivity tests to support our empirical specifications. Last, we draw some policy conclusions.
Abstract: This paper has as its focus the recent experience of peacekeeping and peacebuilding in East Timor and the Southwest Pacific. The general context is the trend towards the regionalization of such matters at a global level. In this case we have some specific situations within the same broad area of the world (extending from the eastern end of Southeast Asia into the adjoining parts of the Pacific islands region). An analysis of peacekeeping and peacebuilding in these situations can be useful in at least two respects.
It is possible to observe the political dynamics underlying peacekeeping and peacebuilding in these situations with a view to seeing whether they are consistent with broader international trends. At the same time the experience in East Timor and the Southwest Pacific might provide insights that could be relevant in other contexts. Peacekeeping refers to international ‘intervention’ to restore security or to deal with a deteriorating security situation. Peacebuilding is the long term process focusing on political, economic and social development as a means of rebuilding societies and avoiding situations that jeopardize security, whether defined in terms of state security or human security more broadly.
Abstract: In March 2003, a U.S.-led multinational force began operations in Iraq. At that time, 48 nations, identified as a "coalition of the willing," offered political, military, and financial support for U.S. efforts in Iraq, with 38 nations other than the United States providing troops. In addition, international donors met in Madrid in October 2003 to pledge funding for the reconstru#ction of Iraq's infrastructure, which had deteriorated after multiple wars and decades of neglect under the previous regime.
This testimony discusses (1) the troop commitments other countries have made to operations in Iraq, (2) the funding the United States has provided to support other countries' participation in the multinational force, and (3) the financial support international donors have provided to Iraq reconstruction efforts.
Abstract: The decade since the early 1990s has witnessed the growth of a field of research and practice aimed at resolving and preventing violent conflict. Research on violent conflict has led to a number of different theories on causes of violent conflict, many of them based on the study of large-scale, protracted conflicts in Africa and the Balkans. Advocates of conflict prevention have linked longer-term root causes of violent conflict to aspects of underdevelopment, and tensions inherent in development processes.
Abstract: In 1995, at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, governments specifically pledged to revoke all laws that discriminate against women. In 2000, at the five year review of the Beijing Conference, governments established a target date for the amendment or repeal of these laws by 2005. This is the year of reckoning. Yet, as Equality Now's report Words and Deeds: Holding Governments Accountable in the Beijing +10 Review Process illustrates, countries around the world regardless of geo-political status continue to discriminate against women and girls by keeping them unequal before the law. Taina Bien-Aimé Executive Director notes, "Changing the law is just the first step towards addressing violence and discrimination against women. How can governments claim they are committed to sex equality if they cannot even eliminate the most blatantly discriminatory laws?"
Equality Now, an international human rights organization with offices in New York, Nairobi and London, works to protect and promote the human rights of girls and women. Equality Now's Women's Action Network counts more than 25,000 groups and individual members in over 160 countries.
Abstract: Tonga encompasses more than 170 islands in the South Pacific, which are home to roughly 110,000 inhabitants. The area became a constitutional monarchy in 1875, and was established as a British protected statexe2x80x94but not formally colonizedxe2x80x94in 1900. In 1970, Tonga became an independent state within the British Commonwealth.
Abstract: Little information is available about trafficking of women and children in Tonga. However, Tonga one of several small Pacific nations that have been threatened with sanctions by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development if they do not reform their banking systems. International banking authorities are concerned that the taxation and banking laws in those countries permit money laundering.