This monograph conceptualizes a post-Castro future for the Cuban armed forces. The author projects required mission and structure changes, as the Cuban military will need to be integrated into the family of Western Hemisphere militaries, support democracy, be subordinate to elected civilian leaders, and respect human rights.
This paper explores how Cuba has remained politically stable despite economic crisis. Prior to the crisis, the regime had accumulated considerable political capital reserves, and had developed institutional mechanisms capable of monitoring and controlling discontent. However, the 1990s saw an increasing distancing between state and society, and growing disillusion. Yet the Cuban state has succeeded in maintaining the political op#position marginalized from society, and has responded by seeking ways of re-securing popular support....
As we started speaking about my visit, Father José Marxc3xada removed the telephone cord from the receiver in one deft, well-practiced move. I knew that move well from my youth in Communist Poland, when it was wise to assume not only that every telephone line was bugged but that each telephone could serve as a listening device. We were on the outskirts of one of Cuba's provincial cities, in a tiny reception room with decrepit furniture and peeling paint. Even though Fr. José had a rotund face that radiated good humor, there was an otherworldliness in his manner, like that of the Solidarity priests I knew in the old days in Poland. The Cuban secret service's favorite extermination method is simply running someone over with a police car, and Fr. José has had a couple of brushes with death recently. ...
U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay is the oldest U.S. base overseas and the only one in a Communist country. Located on the southeast corner of Cuba, in the Oriente Province, the base is about 400 air miles from Miami, Florida.
In December 1903, the United States leased the 45 square miles of land and water for use as a coaling station. A treaty reaffirmed the lease in 1934 granting Cuba and her trading partners free access through the bay, payment of $2,000 in gold per year, equating to $4,085 today, and a requirement that both the U.S. and Cuba must mutually consent to terminate the lease.
Diplomatic relations with Cuba were cut in 1961 by President Dwight Eisenhower. At this time, many Cubans sought refuge on the base. U.S. Marines and Cuban militiamen began patrolling opposite sides of the base's 17.4 mile fenceline. Today, U.S. Marines and Cuba's "Frontier Brigade" still man fenceline posts 24 hours a day. ...
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar took power following a September 1933 officer coup. Later he was elected president in 1940 but voted out of office in 1944. He ran for office again in 1952 but only three months before the vote was supposed to take place he staged a military coup, suspended the elections, and began to rule as a dictator. The move antigonized many in Cuba who wanted the country to abide by the 1940 democratic constitution.
The United States was not about to let a socialist state and Soviet ally establish itself only a few miles from the Florida coast. With the approval of the Eisenhower administration the CIA began to train an army of Cuban exiles in Guatemala with the goal of invading Cuba, beginning a revolt against Castro, and overthrowing the communist government. On April 17, 1961, a force of 1500 Cuban exiles, armed by the US, landed in Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on Cuba's south coast. The attack began with an air raid but Castro had hidden his planes. As a result, the Cuban air force was not grounded, which would have serious implications when the invaders left their boats to establish a beachhead. The invaders came under fire from the Cuban air force almost as soon as they landed and two of the support boats were sunk as well, cutting off critical supply lines....
The United States outpost at the eastern tip of Cuba is officially known as Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, but for the locals it is "Gitmo." The U.S. has occupied the area since 1898, leasing it from Cuba for some $4,000 per year. Cuban President Fidel Castro refuses to cash the rent cheques, calling the 116-sq.-km base "a dagger pointed at Cuba's heart." This is where the Afghan "detainees" are being kept, starting with the first batch of 20 that arrived in January 2002, after a 20-hour flight from Afghanistan....
Cuba Archive is developing a comprehensive registry of disappearances and fatalities of a political nature resulting from the Cuban Revolution. This information is gathered and disseminated for educational purposes and to advance human rights.
Despite the centrality of state action to an understanding of state-society contentious interaction, disaggregated data on repression and accommodation is either poor or nonexistent. PIWAR investigates the causes and consequences of state tactics (repression and accommodation) and opposition activity in post-revolutionary states in four post-revolutionary states: Bolivia (1952-1964); Cuba (1959-1971); Iran (1979-1991); Nicaragua (1979-1991).
The world’s worst online oppressors are using an array of tactics, some reflecting astonishing levels of sophistication, others reminiscent of old-school techniques. From China’s high-level malware attacks to Syria’s brute-force imprisonments, this may be only the dawn of online oppression.
In reporting news from the world’s most troubled nations, journalists have made a seismic shift this year in their reliance on the Internet and other digital tools. Blogging, video sharing, text messaging, and live-streaming from cellphones brought images of popular unrest from the central square of Cairo and the main boulevard of Tunis to the rest of the world. Yet the technology used to report the news has been matched in many ways by the tools used to suppress information. Many of the oppressors’ tactics show an increasing sophistication, from the state-supported email in China designed to take over journalists’ personal computers, to the carefully timed cyber-attacks on news websites in Belarus. Still other tools in the oppressor’s kit are as old as the press itself, including imprisonment of online writers in Syria, and the use of violence against bloggers in Russia.
To mark World Press Freedom Day, May 3, the Committee to Protect Journalists is examining the 10 prevailing tactics of online oppression worldwide and the countries that have taken the lead in their use. What is most surprising about these Online Oppressors is not who they are—they are all nations with long records of repression—but how swiftly they adapted old strategies to the online world.
In two nations we cite, Egypt and Tunisia, the regimes have changed, but their successors have not categorically broken with past repressive practices. The tactics of other nations—such as Iran, which employs sophisticated tools to destroy anti-censorship technology, and Ethiopia, which exerts monopolistic control over the Internet—are being watched, and emulated, by repressive regimes worldwide.
Here are the 10 prevalent tools for online oppression....
This report explores the historic reform process currently underway in Cuba. It looks first at the
political context in which the VI Cuban Communist Party Congress took place, including the
Cuban government's decision to release a significant number of political prisoners as part of a new
dialogue with the Cuban Catholic Church. It then analyzes Cuba's nascent processes of economic
reform and political liberalization. To conclude, it discusses the challenges and opportunities these
processes pose for U.S policy toward Cuba....
This report collects statistics from a variety of sources on casualties sustained during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. OEF actions take place primarily in Afghanistan; however, OEF casualties also includes American casualties in Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, the Philippines, Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Yemen. Casualty data of U.S. military forces are compiled by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency's press releases. Also included are statistics on those wounded but not killed.
Because the estimates of Afghan casualties contained in this report are based on varying time periods and have been created using different methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using them and should look to them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact. This report will be updated as needed....
December 8, 2010 Office of the Director of National Intelligence, United States
The Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the Director of the Central Intelligence
Agency and the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, shall make publicly available an
unclassified summary of -
(1) intelligence relating to recidivism of detainees currently or formerly held at the Naval
Detention Facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, by the Department of Defense; and
(2) an assessment of the likelihood that such detainees will engage in terrorism or communicate
with persons in terrorist organizations....
March 19, 2010 United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office
This is the 12th FCO Annual Report on Human
Rights. The report sets out the UK’s work and
policy on human rights in 2009, and explains the
importance of human rights across our foreign
policy goals. It highlights our main policies,
countries of concern and the challenges we
face. It demonstrates how we seek to address
these issues through diplomatic channels and
international bodies, as well as our programme
work across the globe. However, many of the issues covered in these pages
highlight the growing tendency to once again claim
human rights as a “Western” construct, unsuited to
particular cultures and countries. In the Democratic
People’s Republic of Korea, the government continues
to insist that national security and cultural differences
invalidate human rights obligations and justify
subjecting humanitarian workers to severe restrictions.
In Burma, Aung San Suu Kyi is incarcerated on
the basis of similar arguments that her battle for
Foreword by the Foreign Secretary
democracy undermines national security. Women are
still denied their human rights in many parts of the
world, on the basis that culture and religion render
those rights inapplicable. The increasing threat to
gay people’s rights in some African countries reminds
us that tolerance is a dream rather than a reality for
much of the world’s population.
But this report also shows how people around the
world are pushing back against the idea that human
rights are not universal – in 2009 demonstrators
in Guinea and Honduras demanded their rights to
democracy, human rights defenders from Belarus
to Syria continued to protest against injustice and
worldwide, individuals and groups continue to work
to realise the rights of all. We have a responsibility
to applaud these efforts, and to support them by
challenging the notion that human rights depend on
culture and circumstance....