On 31 August, 2012 the Humanitarian Policy Group brought together participants involved in the response to the crisis in Syria to pool information and analysis of the humanitarian implications of the conflict that has claimed an estimated 17,000 lives, most of them civilian. This event follows a previous Syria roundtable held on 15 June at the Overseas Development Institute. Since then humanitarian challenges have significantly escalated following the spread of war to the two major cities, Damascus and Aleppo. This has displaced thousands – many for the second time – and contributed to the flight of an estimated 230,000 refugees to neighbouring countries. This second roundtable again brought together senior representatives of the leading aid agencies in Syria and neighbouring countries via video/audio conference with policy makers in donor capitals and colleagues gathered in London to explore the humanitarian response within Syria and consider the regional humanitarian dimensions of the conflict. The discussion was again held under the Chatham House rule and participation was by invitation. What follows is a summary of that discussion.